2012 oktober – Zeng Xiangbo v Sloveniji

Med 30.oktobrom do 16. novembrom bo v Sloveniji tajvanski mojster Zeng Xiangbo (曾祥柏) iz Yilana na Tajvanu. Prihaja na povabilo sodelavcev Taijiquan Institute, kjer delujejo pod vodstvom mojstra Zhenga.

Zeng Xiangbo se je v mladih letih učil gongfuja pri taiwanskih specialnih enotah in kasneje postal tudi njihov inštruktor. Je naslednik tradicije družine 楊 (Yang), ki je preko mojstra 鄭曼青 (Zheng Manqing) prišla na Taiwan. Ukvarja se z vadbo telesnih tehnik taijiquana v svoji tradicionalni obliki kot borilna veščina. 維武 (weiwu) pomeni dobesedno ohraniti borilne veščine. Takšno je tudi ime hiše taijiquan pod vodstvom mojstra Zeng-a.

Vir: Taijiquan Institute, Ljubljana.

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Zelo zanimivi arhivski posnetki taijija / Fascinating archive video of taiji

Verjetno najzgodnejši posnetek sloga Wu, narejen leta 1937 v Shanghaiju. Prikazuje Zhu Minyija, učenca Wu Jianquana. Viden je tudi zanimiv znanstveni pristop k vadbi lepljenja in žoge. Delček zgodovine.

Possibly the earliest Wu style Taijiquan video with Zhu Minyi, disciple of Wu Jianquan, recorded in 1937 in Shanghai. The video shows the Wu style set, tuishou and even Zhu’s ‘modern and scientific’ approach including his ‘stick’ and ‘ball’ system. A piece of history.

Dvoletni program za učitelje

Slovensko združenje Wushu pod strokovnim vodstvom Chen Shininga, je konec julija (2010) objavilo poziv za prijavo na dvoletni program za učitelje taijija in qigonga.

Mislim, da gre za prvi formalizirani program za učitelje taijij in qigonga, kar je vsekakor potrebno pozdraviti kot dobrodošlo prakso, s katero bo manj nereda in neresnosti pri poučevanju. Danes namreč lahko v Sloveniji taiji in qigong poučuje vsakdo, ki je nekje obiskoval kakšen šnelkurz ali ima doma delujoči videorekorder. Prav tako pri nas ni običaj, da bi “učitelji” obeh veščin javno in transparentno razgrnili, pri kom, kaj, kako in kako dolgo so se učili veščine, ki jih smelo podajajo naprej.

Morda bo kdo rekel, da sem v svoji oceni neobjektiven, saj že leta vadim pri Chen Shiningu. Morda, a s tem nikakor niso ovrženi moji gornji argumenti. Poreklo znanja je pri taijiju prav posebej pomembno in skrivanje porekla znanja pač ne more biti zagotovilo za kvaliteto znanja. Da nemoralnosti skrivanja porekla znanja ne omenjam. O tem, da je taiji nekako povezan tudi z etiko in etičnim delovanjem, pa tudi ne gre izgubljati besed.

Glede porekla Chen Shininga se sprehodite sem.

Pred časom pa sem na tem blogu že pisal o sistemu certificiranja znanja v Nemčiji in standardih poučevanja v Avstriji.

Tole pa je originalno besedilo sneto s spletne strani Slovenskega združenja Wushu.

Dvoletni program za učitelje

Okvirni urnik 2010/11

Za potrebe Slovenskega združenja taijiquan hram CSN objavljamo program usposabljanja za učitelje za veščini taijiquan in qigong.

Za kandidate programa ni omejitve v starosti, spolu ali bivališču. Na program se lahko prijavite tako tisti, ki že imate izkušnje s poučevanjem kot tudi tisti brez izkušenj.
Zaželeno je predhodno vsaj enoletno redno obiskovanje tečaja.
Program bo vseboval  20 % teoretični del in 80 % praktični.
Del programa bo potekal individualno in bo prilagojen posameznemu kandidatu. Program bo potekal predvidoma dve leti. Urnik se bo delno oblikoval glede na prijavljene kandidate.

Zainteresirane kandidate prosimo, da do konca septembra prijavo pošljejo na info@taiji.si z naslednjimi podatki :

  • Ime:
  • Priimek:
  • Starostna skupina kateri pripadate:
  • A: 16-30 let,
  • B: 30-40,
  • C: 40-50,
  • D: 50-60,
  • nad 60
  • Kraj bivališča:
  • Koliko časa vadite veščino taijiquan in qigong:
  • Dosedanje izkušnje s poučevanjem taijiquana in qigonga:
  • Prosimo, če napišete vaš kratek življenjepis:

Discussions with Chen Xiaowang / Pogovor s Chen Xiaowangom


Q: How do you use the dantian in applying force?
CXW: The dantian is the energy center of the body and requires coordination of the entire body. The force generated originates from the dantian and coordinates with the rest of the body, gaining force.

Q: What are the mechanics of applying dantian force?

CXW: Spiral force coordinated through the movement of the body. When the dantian turns, the body turns and pushes the hands. The dantian area is like the center of a circle.

Q: How are the back and legs coordinated with the dantian?
CXW: When the dantian begins moving, you connect the muscles of the legs and back to follow the dantian. Every part moves together, all connected. The hand does not move by itself, the dantian pushes the hand. It’s a three dimensional movement, using the whole body. The dantian, hip, knee, leg all coordinate, initiating in the spiraling through the body.

Q: Does the dantian have force?
CXW: A small amount. The small force pushes the rest of the body (muscle and bone).

Q: What is the connection between qi and the dantian?
CXW: Qi by itself is weak, soft. The dantian “communicates” to the
muscle and bone. The dantian is the storage of all the qi. The jingluo directs the qi through the body. When qi is generated, it is communicated (wired like a bomb) through the body. It is very important to understand the relationship of dantian to qi, qi and muscle, and muscle and bone. The main communication is between the dantian and muscle — this is the essence of Chen Taijiquan.

Q: There is a lot of emphasis on the dantian rotation in the Chen Style, correct?
CXW: Yes, in terms of connection to the whole body and the dantian leading the movement. Also, when empty, the qi goes from the dantian out to the hand it is yang. When it returns to the dantian, it is yin.

Q: What is the importance of yi?
CXW: The application of yi to the movement is important. There are three stages: early, middle, and advanced. Half the mind concentrates on the movement itself, the other half of the mind is empty or open. In the early stage you pay attention to the movement or the qi itself. At the advanced stage you don’t have to pay attention to it, all the channels are open and the qi is flowing naturally with concentrating on it. This is because the energy moves easily through the body. No matter what stage, it is important to keep one half of the concentration on the body’s movement and one half of the mind open.

Q: Are there acupuncture points stimulated by movements in Taiji?
CXW: Different postures require different coordination of the muscles, resulting in different emphasis. Qi is communicated through the channels, so there are different results with different movements.

Q: Are there any differences in breathing patterns between the Laojia Yi lu and Er lu forms?
CXW: Many people ask this. There are same and different principles associated with each form, but one should not try to control the breathing. Keep it natural. When doing fajin, it is natural to exhale. In the beginning you need to focus on correcting the movements, don’t try to force the breathing. As skill increases the body’s requirements for oxygen will adjust naturally. Be honest with the needs of your body. If you run or jump, the body will respond by adjusting your breathing naturally. You don’t need to think about it. Taiji is the same.

Q: Would you discuss qi?
CXW: Some things can only be felt and cannot be described. You should be feeling “hot water”, pouring through your arm and to your hand. Even at low levels, people can feel this. When the arm is circling the little finger moves, energy goes to the dantian. When the thumb moves, the qi goes from the dantian out to the hand.

Q: What is the difference between qi and jing?
CXW: The qi communicates, by itself is different. When communicated to the muscles, the qi becomes jing. Jing is the expression of qi,as it becomes explosive force. Whenever qi communicates explosive force to the muscles, it becomes jing.

Q: What is the difference between jing and shen?
CXW: Jing and shen are nearly the same. Shen is a higher level, jing is the first level of shen. Jing is the foundation of the building, shen is the top of the building. The relationship between yi and qi is the king, the qi is the army (bones and muscle). The yi is the king, muscle and bone the general. Yi effects qi.

Q: What are the most important principles in Chen Style Taijiquan?
CXW: Posture, position — standing post exercise is the first form. This gets the body ready for Taijiquan practice. Before you can drive a car, you have to adjust the mirrors, seats, buckle in, etc. This is similar. Think of the dantian as the center. The body must be in balance, the mind quiet and peaceful, energy flowing everywhere through the body. The key point is that the body is connected, qi is flowing and communicating with the rest of the body.
You have the one posture, two movement principle:The first principle the dantian moves side to side, turning, spiraling,and changing. Connection as above (standing post), maintained in moving, dantian moves the body responds. The second principle the dantian moves forward and backward. The movement corresponds to the dantian movement to another — transition from one movement to another — fundamental. Not spiraling. Once you understand the posture and the movement principles you understand all forms, applications, or any weapon. If you don’t understand these principles, you are like a tree without roots and you can’t grow.The two movement principles can combine into one because of the similarity.The chest/waist change the move, opening and closing.

Q: What are common mistakes people make learning Taijiquan?
CXW: One of the most common mistakes is that they don’t understand the two movement principles. They try to just copy their teacher’s movements, without understanding. The student must know what to do and what not to do, not just follow their teacher blindly. Each movement has a standard, and principles to be followed, so the teacher must understand this in order to teach the student, and the student must look for this and will/should be able to adjust other students and themselves. I want to see both the teacher and the student move forward together, toward the same goal of higher standard in Taijiquan.

Q: What is the importance of standing post?
CXW: It is the posture which increases the communication between the dantian and the rest of the body. One posture two movement principle. Standing post is the way to practice one posture.

Q: When should a student begin push hands?
CXW: Before push hands, you must understand the movement principles, coordination of the entire body. If you don’t, you end up with too much arm movement.

Q: Is central equilibrium developed through push hands?
CXW: This is done through the movement principles and the standing posture. Many times people fail in push hands because they lose the balance of the dantian. Maintain the beginning posture then when you move, maintain the two movement principles.

Q: How can people improve their push hands?
CXW: People should practice the entire Laojia Yi lu form. Practice all the postures and the form more often, think about application of each movement. You must practice often, keep the principles in mind during practice, until they become part of yourself.

Q: Is there a need to distinguish between yin and yang?
CXW: I use solid and empty, not yin and yang. It is difficult to explain, use double weighted, which means both sides have the same weight. In Taijiquan, you need to make one side lighter than the other, but that is too easy. If it were that easy, everyone would be a Taiji master. The real meaning is in the static posture. When the body isn’t moving, the energy can’t move, stagnation.

Q: What is the value of Qigong for Taiji practice?
CXW: Qigong principles are similar to Taiji. Same channels, dantian, body, etc. Taijiquan is a complete set of Qigong, you really need no other. Taijiquan is more systematic and sequential. I teach Qigong to those that desire to learn Qigong.

Q: What is the value of the Healing Sounds Qigong?
CXW: It is simple. There are sounds associated with movements of the body.
Just like a musical scale they all come from the mouth, but have different reactions on the body. Depending on your particular ailment or problem you create a specific sound.

Q: The push hands tournament tape from the Chen village looks pretty physical.
CXW: Some enter the tournament without proper practice. There are two aspects to push hands: 1. actively attack, 2. passively protect yourself. If you are being pushed you must protect yourself. You should learn and understand both aspects of the competition. The problem with the tournament is that many try to be number one (win), so both partners are actively attacking each other at the same time. This is the problem. Sometimes the competitors are not well matched either.

Q: How do you use peng energy in fajin?
CXW: The basic idea behind peng jing is energy flow, no stagnation. If energy is broken there is no peng jing. If there’s too much energy, also no peng jing. This is a big problem here in the US. Many people have the wrong idea about peng jing. The mind must be clear and peaceful. Peng jing cannot be forced. Allow energy to flow naturally is the only way.

Q: Is it necessary to have ground path in order to have peng jing?
CXW: No. It is like a car on a lift. The car’s engine can still run and the wheels will turn. Once you place the car on the ground the car will move. Peng jing is similar.

Q: How can neutralization skills be developed?
CXW: The posture must be relaxed, the mind relaxed, then minimal amount of movement is required to neutralize. This is peng jing. If the dantian is in communication with the body, it creates an “energy shield” around the body. If you lose communication with part of the body you lose peng jing. If doing properly, the arm will communicate how the rest of the body needs to respond. The soldier send signals to the general and the body responds as needed.

Q: How does open and close work when attacking?
CXW: When you are going to attack, the body collapses (closes) then opens, when attacking it opens in front and closes in back. Another way to say it is outside open and inside closed. When gathering the outside is closed and the inside is open.

Q: You created a 19 movement form?
CXW: The 19 form is from the request of many students from around the world. There are four sections in the form. It goes from right to left four times. The principles are based on the Chen Style Laojia (Old Frame), Xinjia (New Frame), and Xiaojia (Small Frame). The principles must be clear and then applied to all the 19 form postures. It is easy for beginners to learn. It was designed for the modern human, who has little time to practice a longer form.

Povzeto po http://taijiyang.wordpress.com/2007/11/09/discussions-with-chen-xiaowang/.


Taiji in sladkorna bolezen

Prenašam članek v hrvaščini o zdravilnem vplivu taijija na sladkorno bolezen (hrv. dijabetes) in imunski sistem. Tudi pri hrvaškem članku gre za prevod in sicer iz neke ameriške revije, članek pa je napisal znani taiji navdušenec Erle Montaigue. Njegov sin ima pogosto delavnice v bližnjem Zagrebu.

Tai Chi za dijabetičare
Prije mnogo godina sam posredstvom osobnog iskustva i eksperimentiranja zbog svog dijabetesa došao do zaključka kako je izvođenje forme i drugih Tai Chi vježbi izvrsna metoda reguliranja razine glukoze u krvi. Do sada sam napisao i objavio više članaka za britanski dijabetički časopis ˝Ravnoteža˝ (Balance), te još jedan za srpanjsko izdanje američkog časopisa ˝Zdravlje s dijabetesom˝(Diabetes health). Da li konačno javnost i liječnici mogu biti upoznati s mojim radom i istraživanjem? Uistinu je šteta da tek 20 godina kasnije iz rezultata svojih vlastitih istraživanja liječnici saznaju ono što sam im ja sve ove godine govorio. Pročitajte;
Tai Chi Chuan može poboljšati stanje pacijenata koji pate od dijabesa tipa 2

NEW YORK (Reuters Health). Nova studija ukazuje da bavljenje kineskom borilačkom vještinom Tai Chi Chuan može pospješiti funkciju imunosnog sustava, te poboljšati kontrolu razine glukoze u krvi kod ljudi koji pate od dijebetesa tipa 2. Nakon završenog programa vježbi u trajanju od 12 tjedana, muškarci i žene uključeni u studiju imali su znatnu redukciju razine A1C, mjere koja ukazuje na dugoročnu kontrolu razine glukoze u krvi. U sudionika je također utvrđen porast broja regulacijskih T-limfocita, stanica koje drže imunosni sustav u stanju pripravnosti, dok je istovremeno zamjećen pad brojnosti tzv. ˝ubojničkih˝ (killer) stanica, čija je primarna funkcija uništavanje abnormalnih stanica u tijelu.
Ljudi s dijabetesom tipa 2 pate od kronične upale, te Dr. Kuender D. Yang i njegovi kolege iz bolnice Chang Gung Memorial na Tajvanu smatraju da vježbanje u načelu ima povoljan učinak, no također napominju da jače naprezanje može pojačati upalu i dovesti do niza drugih problema. Za Tai Chi, vještinu u kojoj osoba izvodi niz poza s polaganim pokretima, smatraju da, osim što poboljšava osjećaj za ravnotežu, ima blagotvorni utjecaj na rad srca i pluća, te pospješuje funkciju imunosnog sustava u zdravih pojedinaca.
U svrhu istraživanja utjecaja vježbi na zdravlje pacijenata s dijabetesom tipa 2, Dr. Yang i njegov tim su u studiju uključili trideset i dvoje žena i muškaraca, koji su Tai Chi vježbali 3 sata tjedno, kroz 12 tjedana.
Istraživači su zamjetili da Tai Chi može poboljšati funkciju imunosnog sustava kroz povoljan utjecaj na krvožilni i dišni sustav, te da se djelovanje ovih vježbi može zamjetiti i kroz pospješivanje metabolizma glukoze.Kao zaključak navode da odgovarajuća kombinacija vježbi borilačke vještine Tai Chi Chuan i primjene medikamenata u pacijenata s dijabetesom tipa 2, dovode do poboljšanja metabolizma glukoze, kao i funkcije imunosnog sustava.


IZVOR: Diabetes care; Ožujak 2007.

Erle Montaigue

prevela: Rajka Turner

Vir članka: http://www.wudangshan.hr/dijabetes.htm

Razmerje Taiji in daoizem / On Relation Between Taiji and Daoism

Sometimes mispronounced “tai-ch’i,” Taiji quan 太極拳 (T’ai-chi ch’üan) literally means “Supreme Ultimate Boxing.” Here Taiji 太極 (lit., “great ridgepole”) refers to yin-yang interaction, so that the modern Taiji diagram is the Yin-yang symbol. This diagram is sometimes used as a symbol for Chinese martial arts by martial artists and sometimes as a symbol for Daoism by Daoists. These two are often conflated in the popular understanding of “Daoism.” Historically speaking, it is unclear when the modern Taiji diagram was created (cf. the Taiji tu 太極 圖 by Zhou Dunyi 周敦頤 [1017-1073]) and when Chinese Daoists began using it. In earlier Daoist history, the “yin-yang symbol” referred to the image of a tiger and dragon. The modern version may have been adopted by Daoists to compete with the symbolic representations of other religious traditions: the cross of Christianity, swastika of Buddhism, crescent moon of Islam, Star of David of Judaism, and so forth.

Taiji diagram Zhang Huang  章潢 (1527-1608)

Diagram of Taiji by Zhang Huang 章潢 (1527-1608)

Taiji refers to the cosmogonic moment when the Dao, through a spontaneous, impersonal process of self-unfolding, moved from Wuji 無極 (Primordial Undifferentiation) to Taiji, the manifest universe based on yin-yang interaction. Taiji quan is thus a form of martial arts based on yin and yang differentiation.

Taiji quan is part of the so-called Chinese internal martial arts (neijia 内家), with the other two forms being Bagua zhang 八卦掌 (Pa-kua chang; Eight Trigram Palm) and Xingyi quan 形意拳 (Hsing-i ch’üan; Form-Intent Boxing). Historically speaking, Taiji quan is a non-religious martial arts practice. The original form of Taiji quan, Chen 陳 style, was most likely created in the early seventeenth century, possibly by Chen Wangting 陳王廷 (1600-1680). The creation of Taiji quan occurred in the famous “Chen family village,” located in present-day Wen county of Henan province. It may have been formed as a nativist response to the perceived atrophy and weakness of Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasty court culture. In this way, it would have been part of a national-upbuilding movement to combat the occupation and suppression of the native population by foreign colonist powers.

There are five primary “family styles,” including Chen, Yang 楊 (founded by Yang Luchan 楊露禪 [1799-1872]), Wu 武-Hao 郝 (founded by Wu Yuxiang 武禹襄 [1813-1880]), Wu 吳 (founded by Wu Quanyou 吳全佑 [1834-1902] and Wu Jianquan 吳鑑泉 [1870-1942]), and Sun 孫 (founded by Sun Lutang [1861-1932]).

Yang Chengfu 楊澄甫 (1883-1936) in “Single Whip”

Yang Chengfu 楊澄甫 (1883-1936) in “Single Whip”

Yang style derived from Chen style. Both the Wu-Hao style and Wu style derived from Yang style. Sun style derived from Wu-Hao style. Each has its distinguishing characteristics in postural alignment and form. There are also some very recent forms, variously identified as “ancient” (gu 古), “Daoist” (daojia 道家), “primordial original” (hunyuan 混元), and so forth.

In origin and content, Taiji quan thus is not a Daoist practice. The earliest form originates as a martial art with the (non-Daoist) Chen family most likely in the early seventeenth century. Its emphasis on yin-yang is not Daoist, but rather part of what is best understood as “traditional Chinese cosmology.” Historically speaking, that cosmology was systematized by the Cosmologist School (yinyang jia 陰陽家) of the Warring States period (480-222 BCE) under the direction of Zou Yan 鄒衍 (Tsou Yen; 305-240 BCE). It was eventually incorporated into both Chinese medical traditions and classical Daoism.

The matter is complicated by the mythological account of the origins of Taiji quan with the pseudo-historical Zhang Sanfeng 張三丰 (ca. 14th c.?) and Wudang shan 武當山 (Mount Wudang; near Shiyan, Hubei). Taiji quan is, in turn, sometimes misidentified as Wudang quan 武當拳 (Wudang Boxing). Although yet to receive a thorough academic study, preliminary historical research suggests that this mythology developed in three stages, culminating in the conflation of Zhang Sanfeng, Wudang shan, and Taiji quan in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Under that fictitious history, Zhang Sanfeng, an immortal associated with Wudang, created the internal martial arts, which were eventually separated into the three neijia forms mentioned above. It is unclear when the specific forms of Wudang martial arts developed, but it may have occurred as late as the twentieth century. Legends surrounding the “Daoist origins” of Taiji quan may be compared to a parallel mythology concerning the association of certain Gongfu 功夫 (Kung Fu) systems with Shaolin si 少林寺 (Shaolin Monastery; Songshan 嵩山, Henan) and Bodhidharma (ca. 5th c. CE?).

In the modern world, there are a variety of Taiji quan forms that are identified as “Daoist.” The most well-known are those associated with Mount Wudang, which are referred to as “Wudang style.” In addition to being practiced and taught by Daoists at Mount Wudang, these forms, at least in name, have spread throughout the modern world. Practitioners, whether mainland Chinese Daoists or Western disciples, are most likely to perpetuate the mythological account of Taiji quan’s origins. Some self-identified Wudang centers include the Academy of Wudang Taoist Wushu Arts, US Wudang Association, Wudang dao, Wudang Taoist Kung Fu Academy, and Wudang Research Association. Many of these and similar groups cater to a Western clientele, with the primary motivation of making money. They are most likely to essentialize or reduce Daoist practice to martial arts training. They have gained cultural capital from popular cultural representations, such as in the film Wohu canglong 臥虎藏龍 (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; released in 2000).

One also finds the more recent “Taoist Tai Chi” created by Moy Lin-shin (Mei Lianxian 梅連羡; 1931-1998), a Hong Kong immigrant to Canada. Apart from yin-yang cosmology and its emphasis on “being soft,” and possibly Taiji quan’s mythological Daoist associations, it is difficult to determine what led Moy to categorize the practice as such. So-called “Taoist Tai Chi” is now widespread throughout the modern world as disseminated by the International Taoist Tai Chi Society (Guoji daojia taiji quan she 國際道家太極拳社).

In the context of contemporary American society, many Taiji quan teachers have been misidentified as Daoists and/or given a post-mortem Daoist pedigree.

So, what must be understood is that Taiji quan, in contrast to popular constructions, is not Daoist in origin or in content. Practicing this martial art does not make one a Daoist. At the same time, it cannot be denied that many mainland Chinese Daoists practice Taiji quan. This includes lineage-based Wudang forms, however recent their provenance may be. When practiced by Daoists, especially Quanzhen monastics, the martial applications of Taiji quan tend to deemphasized, while the meditative and health-preserving and life-extension dimensions are highlighted. A stronger emphasis is also placed on Daoist subtle anatomy and physiology, including qi circulation. In addition, some Daoists apply certain Daoist principles, especially those derived from classical Daoist texts, to transform Taiji quan into a “Daoist practice.”

Further Reading: “A Taoist Immortal of the Ming Dynasty: Chang San-feng”/Anna Seidel; Beyond the Closed Door/Arieh Lev Breslow; “Chronology of Daoist History”/Louis Komjathy; Daoist Identity/Livia Kohn and Harold Roth (eds.); Daoism in China/Wang Yi’e; “Ignorance, Legend, and Taijiquan”/Stanley Henning; Investigations into the Authenticity of the Chang San-feng ch’uan-chi/Wong Shiu Hon; Lost T’ai-chi Classics of the Late Ch’ing Dynasty/Douglas Wile; “Models of Daoist Practice and Attainment”/Louis Komjathy; Nei Jia Quan/Jess O’Brien; “Qigong in America”/Louis Komjathy; “Periodization of Daoist History”/Louis Komjathy; T’ai Chi’s Ancestors/Douglas Wile; “Taijiquan and Daoism: From Religion to Martial Art and Martial Art to Religion”/Douglas Wile; “The Dao of America”/Elijah Siegler; The Essence and Applications of Taijiquan/Louis Swaim; The Shaolin Monastery/Meir Shahar; “The Taoism of the Western Imagination and the Taoism of China”/Russell Kirkland;“Tracing the Contours of Daoism in North America”/Louis Komjathy.

See also American Daoism, Dao, Daoism (Historical), Daoism (Normative), Daoism (Popular Construction), Philosophical Daoism, Popular Western Taoism, and the entries on Daoist.

Članek je povzet po ameriškem Center for Daoist Studies. Povezava do njega, kjer so aktivne tudi nadaljne povezave omenjene v članku, je tukaj.

Pet vrlin in osem resnic Taijija

Esejčka sta delo neznanih ali neznanega avtorja ali avtorice. Waysun Liao, ki trenutno poučuje mešanje zraka, khm taijija, v ZDA, ju je prevedel iz kitajščine v angleščino in objavil v knjigi T’ai Chi Classics, Shambala, Boston & London, 1990. Besede zapisane v kurzivu so takšne tudi v knjigi.

Pet vrlin taijija

1. Učenje naj bo široko in raznoliko. Ne omejuj se. Načelo učenja naj bo kakor tvoje stojišče, ki se z lahkoto premika v različne smeri.

2. Preiskuj in postavljaj vprašanja. Vprašaj se, zakaj in kako taiji deluje. To načelo naj bo primerljivo s senzitivnostjo, ki je dovzetna za tisto, kar ostali prezrejo.

3. V razmišljanju bodi preudaren in skrben. Za pravilno razumevanje uporabi razum. To načelo naj bo primerljivo z razumevanjem moči.

4. Nedvoumno raziskuj. Jasno ločuj pojme in se nato odločaj za primerne postopke. To načelo naj bo primerljivo z nepretrganim gibanjem taijija.

5. Predano vadi. Načelo, primerljivo z nebesi in zemljo, z večnim.

Osem resnic taijija

1. Naj te ne skrbi forma. Naj te ne skrbijo načini, na katere se forma izraža. Najbolje je pozabiti lastno bivanje.

2. Celotno telo naj bo prosojno in prazno. Dopusti, da se notranje in zunanje zlijeta ter postaneta eno.

3. Nauči se ne meniti se za zunanje predmete. Sledi naravni poti. Dovoli, da te vodi misel, obnašaj se spontano in v sozvočju s trenutkom.

4. Sonce zahaja nad zahodno planino. Čer je nagnjena naprej kakor lebdeča v zraku. Poglej ocean v njegovi neizmernosti in nebo v njegovi brezmejnosti.

5. Tigrovo rjovenje je globoko in mogočno. Opičje vreščanje je visoko in predirljivo. Tako tudi ti kultiviraj svoj duh z negovanjem pozitivnega in negativnega.

6. Voda iz studenca je čista kakor kristal. Voda v luži je mirna in spokojna. Tvoje mišljenje naj bo kakor luža, tvoj duh kakor studenec.

7. Reka bobni, viharni ocean kipi. Pripravi svoj qi, da bo kakor tile naravni čudeži.

8. Zavzeto teži k popolnosti. Uredi življenje. Ko si umiril duh, lahko kultiviraš qi.

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