Kitajske borilne veščine na Zahodu med prvo svetovno vojno

Republika Kitajska je leta 1917 vstopila v prvo svetovno vojno na strani sil Antante. V letih 1916-1918 je v Evropo poslala delovne enote, ki so štele približno 140.000 ljudi. V prostem času so nekateri med njimi vadili in prikazovali tudi borilne veščine. Mnogo Evropejcev je ob tej priložnosti spoznalo tradicionalne kitajske borilne veščine.

Poleg branja spodnjega članka (v angleščini) je vreden ogleda tudi arhiv fotografij Imperijalnega vojnega muzeja.

Introduction Co-authorship of today’s post is shared with Joseph Svinth, the editor of the EJMAS and multiple other important works on martial arts studies. He brought the following account and historic photographs to my attention, and we both agreed that they were worth sharing here. It seemed as though the events of WWI […]

via A 1918 Account of Traditional Martial Arts in the Chinese Labor Corps — Kung Fu Tea

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Douglas Wile objavil članek o štirih novih dokumentih, ki bodo spremenili zgodovinopisje taijiquana

Douglas Wile je zaslužni profesor kitajščine in kitajske književnosti na brooklinskem College-City University of New York, ki se že približno petdeset let ukvarja tudi z vadbo in zgodovino taijiquana.

V članku, ki bo zagotovo odmeval v skupnosti ljubiteljev veščine, podrobneje obdela vsebino in vpliv štirih nedavnih dokumentov iz zgodovine taijija. Članek je objavljen v julijski številki Martial Arts Studies.

[ Wile, Douglas, 2016. ‘Fighting Words: Four New Document Finds Reignite Old Debates in Taijiquan Historiography’, Martial Arts Studies 4, 17-35. ]

Članek v celoti najdete tukaj.

Lei Tai – fighting in the good old days / borbe v starih dobrih časih

Posredujem zanimiv članek s sarkastičnim naslovom o resničnih borbah, z zanimivimi ugotovitvami, zapisanimi na koncu članka.

Poučno za praktikante notranjih in mehkih borilnih veščin. Sam večkrat pomislim, kako bi se obnesel v spodaj opisanih okoliščinah. Verjetno bi se držal prvega pravila vseh borilnih veščin: zbeži!

 

 

In October 1928 three Chinese generals, Zhang Zhi Jiang (张之江), Li Lie Jun (李烈鈞) and Li Jing Lin (李景林) organized the first public full contact competition in China. The purpose of the competition was to select qualified teachers for the newly founded Central Kuoshu Institute (中南國術館),

Of course, many traditional masters did not compete because they believed their skills could only be proven in serious duels and not “sporting” contests. However, the event attracted hundreds of the best Chinese martial artists who participated in three separate divisions; (1) “boxing”, (2) weapons sparring ad (3) wrestling (aka Shuai Jiao).

In the “boxing” division, competition was suspended after a few days due to the injuries. The event was held with very few rules, but more importantly without any gloves or protective gear. Like the early UFC’s many fighters injured their hands and legs, unaccustomed to actually striking the elbows and knees used to block. The last 12 contestants were not permitted to continue, the public excuse being the “fear of killing off some of the greatest masters of the time”. The overall winner was voted on by a jury of his peers!

The next year a similar event was held in Hangzhou, China. This event was also organized by Li Jinglin, then acting as vice-dean of the Central Martial Arts Academy. This time there were 125 entrants for the “boxing” or “free fighting” (San Shou) competition which was held November 21-27. The event was very popular, the audiences every day numbered in the tens of thousands.

The tournament had few rules, they were not allowed to attack the eyes, throat or groin – anyone breaching these rules was disqualified. However, the event also had a flaw in the rules, in the event of a draw BOTH contestants advanced to the next round. By the end of the first day, more than half the contests had ended in draws! The rules were quickly changed so that in the event of a draw both contestants were eliminated.

With this, the competitors didn’t hold back and many people were hurt, mostly with head injuries. The judges’ committee instituted a new rule in response, stating that contestants were not allowed to continually attack the head! The history of Chinese martial arts fighting competitions is full of instances of poor organization, irrational rules, random rule changes and rules which defy logic and reality of combat.

Zhao Daoxin was a disciple of Zhang Zhaodong and was famous in Tianjin’s martial arts community. Zhao was only 20 at the time and at the beginning of his martial arts career, yet managed to achieve 13th place. His notes on the competition included these observations;

“Those ‘orthodox inheritors’ of traditional martial arts, regardless of whether they were lofty monks or local grandmasters, were either knocked out or scared out of the competition”

Zhao also noted;

“Even though, at registration, every competitor identified themselves as belonging to a traditional style, every one of them engaged in secret auxiliary combat training”

By the 1920′s both Western boxing and Japanese Judo had found there way to China and had made a huge impact on many martial artists. However, due to nationalistic and style pride, many did not openly admit to it!

Other examples of denial of reality manifested themselves at the event. The 2nd place winner, Chu Kao-Lou, openly admitted he also trained in Western boxing. One Taiji master complained that Chu’s fighting style was not using Chinese Martial Arts, to which Chu’s brother, Chu Kao-Chen, challenged the Taiji master. In respond, the Taiji master didn’t dare to accept that challenge.

Other quotes regarding the event

– 这次比赛没有看到高深的内功,没有发人于丈外的场面
You don’t see high level internal power, and Faijin that send people flying 10 feet away in this tournament.

– 太极打法毫无建树,四量难拨千斤
The Taiji principle didn’t work well. 4 oz could not defeat 1000 lb.

– 也就是说号称以巧取胜的中国功夫 实际上也是在跟人拚勇力比高大
The taller, heavier, stronger guys won in that tournament.

– 要学打擂台的拳术
After this tournament, people wanted to learn the style that can be used on the Leitai.

Moderni taiji nije dobar!

Letošnjega januarja je umrl avstralski mojster taijija Erl Montaigu, ki je na Zahod in tudi na Kitajsko vrnil staro oziroma originalno Yang formo. Več o njej, o Erlu in o tem, zakaj misli, da moderni taiji ni dober je moč prebrati v intervjuju, ki ga je z Erlom naredil Mario Krot iz Zagreba. Intervju je prenešen s spletne strani zagrebškega taiji kluba Wudang Shan.

Majstor Erle Montaigue preminuo je 26.01.2011 .

Bio nam je učitelj , prijatelj , savjetnik i izvor inspiracije.

Na svemu smo mu zauvijek zahvalni.

Naše misli su s obitelji Montaigue.

KRATKA BIOGRAFIJA

Erle Montaigue bio je jedan od vodećih instruktora unutarnjih borilačkih vještina. Borilačke vještine otkrio je s 11 ,a unutarnje s 19 godina. Erlovi Tai Chi učitelj bio je Chang Yiu-Chun ( učenik Yang Lu-chan-ovog unuka ). Bagua učitelj bio mu je Ho Ho-choy ( učenik Chiang Jung-chiaoa ).

Erle je svijet ( pa i Kinu ) ponovo upoznao s zaboravljenom Yang Lu-chanovom formom.

Jedini je zapadnjak kojem su stari Kineski Majstori dodijelili titulu Majstora .

Više o Erleu pročitajte ovdje

U nastavku pročitajte intervju koji je s Erleom vodio Mario

ERLE MONTAIGUE – INTERVJU

M: Erle, možete li mi reći nešto o vašim počecima . Kada ste počeli trenirati borilačke vještine te tko su vam bili učitelji?
E: počeo sam s 11 godina trenirajući karate u judo u lokalnom policijskom omladinskom klubu u Australiji. U tim ranim danima jaka strana mi je bila hrvanje te sam kasnije postao profesionalni hrvač. Nikad si nisam dozvoljavao da se vežem za jednu vještinu ,zanimanje ili karijeru. ja sam također i glazbenik.
1967 na tečaju telekomunikacija sreo sam svog prvog učitelja taijiquana
Mr. Wong Eog-a.

U kasnim šezdesetima sam se oženio te dobio dvoje djece te nastupao u raznim predstavama i imao svoj bend te hit pjesmu Ne mogu dočekati srpanj. Kada sam otpušten s telekomunikacijskog posla jer sam pobojao kosu u zelenu i pjevao na poslu (između ostalih sitnih nepodopština) počeo sam se profesionalno baviti glazbom te sam postao rock ‘n’ roll zvijezda s nekoliko hit pjesama i albuma u ranim sedamdesetima. 1974 odlazim u Englesku gdje srećem svog drugog učitelja taiji-a Chu King-hung-a koji me je uzeo za jednog od svojih prvih učenika (ako ne i prvog). Chu King-hung je jedan od tri direktna učenika Yang Sau chunga(1909-1985) najstarijeg sina Yang Lu -chanovog unuka Yang Cheng-fua. U Londonu nastavljam glumačku karijeru glumeći u nekoliko predstava, mjuzikala i filmova sve do kraja 1977 kada se vračam u Australiju.1981 putujem u Hong Kong gdje je moja forma unaprijeđena od Yang Sau chunga te učim od Ho Ho-choya, direktnog učenika velikoh majstora pakue Chiang Jung-chiao-a. 1982 počinjem podučavati taiji u Sidneyu te postajem šef za terapeutske pokrete na NSW Koledžu za Prirodne Terapije.1983 otvaram svoju školu te iduće godine pronalazim svog glavnog učitelja unutarnjih borilačkih vještina, majstora Chang Yiu chuna od kojega učim tajne dim -maka i Hao chuana (taiji). Chang je bio jedan od svega dva učenika Yang Cheng fu-ova brata Yang Shou-hou-a.

M: Recite nam nešto o vašem susretu sa Chang Yiu -chunom.
E: Chang je bio stariji kineski gospodin. U to vrijeme radio sam kao profesionalni vozač te sam svako jutro prolazio kraj njega dok bi išao na posao. On je običavao trenirati na Sidneyskim dokovima.Jedno jutro skupio sam dovoljno hrabrosti da izađem iz auta i započnem svoj trening kraj njega (vrlo egoistično ,znam, ali bio sam mlad). Pokušao sam razgovarati s njim ,ali on nije odgovarao. Nastavio sam ga ispitivati o borilačkim vještinama, ali bez odgovora. Nastavio sam ga gnjaviti sve dok mi nije prišao jedno jutro i nokautirao me jednim prstom. Tada sam pomislio ovo je zbilja prava stvar. Nakon toga nastavio sam tiho trenirati kraj Changa sve dok mi nije nakon puno upornosti ponudio da me podučava.Chang me je podučavao svemu što je znao, svim takozvanim tajnama taiji-a. Bio je to dim-mak te kako trenirati u dim-maku. Naučio me je prve četiri forme Wudang Shana (Qi Disruption) te njegovoj verziji gurajućih ruku. Chang me je naučio kako se uistinu koristi taijiquan.



M: 1985.postajete prvi zapadnjak koji je pozvan da nastupi na Kineskom Nacionalnom Wushu Turniru.
E: Da, postao sam prvi zapadnjak koji je pozvan na taj turnir. To nije bio Internacionalni već Sve Kineski Nacionalni Turnir koji se te godine održavao u Yinchuanu u zapadnoj Kini. Poveo sam osam svojih učenika. Nastupio sam pred 2000 Kineza. Fu Zhonwen ( tada No.1 taiji majstor u Kini, glavni učenik Yang Cheng -fu-a) bio je u publici zajedno sa svim poznatim majstorima kineskih borilačkih vještina.
Izveo sam Stari Yang stil na njihovo iznenađenje, jer čak ni Kinezi više ne znaju za tu formu. Fu Zhonwen je u tom trenutku ustao, odbacio svoju lepezu stao na noge i pljeskao kao i ostatak publike. Također sam pokazao neke borilačke metode te push hands. Idući dan pozvan sam na privatni sastanak sa Fu Zhongwen-om, Shao Shan-kanom (xingyi), Mr li (pakua) te Wang Xin-wu-om predsjednikom Kineske Wushu organizacije. Demonstrirali su mi mnoge forme te sam pozvan da treniram s njima pushing hands.

M: Tada vam je dodijeljena i titula Majstora.
E: Privatni sastanak sa majstorima je zapravo bio ispit o čemu nisam imao pojma. Cijelo vrijeme bio sam naguravan i udaran misleći da su malo grublji s obzirom da nam je to prvi susret. Morao sam im demonstrirati paochui i san-sao forme ,Staru Yang formu i Baguazhang forme. Prije rastanka Wang Xin-wu je došao sa malim certifikatom na kojem piše Majstor Montagu . Naklonio se, zagrlio me i rekao čestitam.

M: Zahvaljujući vašim naporima ljudi danas znaju da postoji i Stari Yang stil. Koja je razlika između tog i Yang stila koji mnogi danas vježbaju?
E: Stari Yang je pravi borilački sistem. Sadrži spore ,ali i fa-jing (eksplozivna energija) pokrete. Smatrao se preteškim za starije i bolesne ljude te je Yang Cheng fu promjenio forme izbacivši eksplozivne pokrete, skokove i dr. Stari stil je totalno energetski orijentiran s naglaskom na generiranju unutarnje snage. Naravno, potrebno je puno godina učenja da bi se došlo do najvišeg nivoa “small frame”(mala građa).

M: Koje je vaše mišljenje o današnjem modernom taijiquanu.
E: Moderni taiji nije dobar! Mnogo je toga razvodnjeno kroz generacije majstora.
Drugi su čak izbacili mnoge pokrete koji se ponavljaju da bi stvorili kratke forme koje su štetne za zdravlje jer je u njima promijenjen normalan tok energije (chi) koja prolazi kroz tijelo.

M: Uvijek govorite da je borilačka strana taiji-a jednako važna kao i zdravstvena. Zašto?
E: u prošlosti stari su majstori običavali govoriti da zašto učiti borilački sistem ako niste zdravi je se takvi ionako ne možete boriti. Da bi se mogli braniti moramo biti zdravi. Kao ratnici u pravom smislu moramo pomagati ljudima te ih liječiti. Učimo liječiti druge jer je to prava priroda unutarnjih borilačkih vještina isto kao i samoobrana. To je istinski yin i yang bez čega ne postoji unutarnja borilačka vještina.

M: Nažalost danas je vrlo malo majstora koji znaju borilačku a kamoli medicinsku stranu taijiquana. Mnogi ga podučavaju kao neku vrst relaksacije ili kakvog New Age načina života i sl. Zašto je to tako?
E: Kada je Yang Cheng-fu promjenio forme nije znao da će se to toliko svidjeti ljudima. S vremenom su ljudi zaboravili na Stari stil. Danas zapadnjaci žele što brže nešto naučiti te nauče par sporih pokreta i misle da znaju Taijiquan. Nakon toga odlaze i podučavaju ne znajući da postoji više . Kao što sam prije rekao ako oduzmete yin od yanga tada nemate ništa. To je upravo ono što ti ljudi imaju. Ništa!

M: 1995 odlazite ponovo u Kinu da bi naučili Wudang Shan od Liang Shih-kana, čuvara tog sistema. Recite mi kako je došlo do toga?
E: Već sam bio naučio prve četiri forme od Chang Yiu -chuna. Nisam točno znao da su to te forme sve dok me 1986 nije posjetio kineski majstor Chen stila. Imao je video sa prve dvije forme te sam odmah shvatio da su ono što sam naučio prve četiri forme.
Kineski majstor je ostao zapanjen jer su njemu pokazali samo dvije forme. Od tada moj je cilj bio da budem primljen da naučim ostalih osam formi od čuvara sistema osobno. To je bio težak zadatak i trebalo mi je idućih devet godina da budem primljen
uglavnom zbog toga što sam ih učio Stari Yang stil jer je taj stil gotovo nestao iz Kine. Tako sam 1995 otputovao u Kinu da bi naučio te forme. Bilo je to teško vrijeme te sam se stalno morao braniti zbog toga što sam zapadnjak. Nije mi bilo dozvoljeno snimanje te sam se morao potajno snimati u sobi i idući dan provjeravati što sam naučio. Kada sam se vratio nisam odmah najbolje znao te forme jer je za to potrebno puno duže. Zahvaljujući bilješkama i video snimkama uspio sam dosegnuti veći nivo u tih 12 formi i pomoćnim formama (koje su zapravo preteča push hands-a).
Sve do 1998. nisam se osjećao dovoljno sigurnim da bi podučavao te forme .
Wudang Shan forme su prve forme iz kojih su rođeni svi ostali unutarnji sistemi. Stvorio ih je Chang San-feng u namjeri da spriječi ostale da nauče njegove novo otkrivene tajne o dim maku, koje je on prenosio samo članovima obitelji uglavnom usmeno. Iako je Liang Shih-kan preminuo njegovo selo još i danas postoji. Nedavno sam čuo od jednog novinara koji je posjetio selo sa sada rade samo” nekakav”kung fu. Naravno siguran sam da ne bi otkrivali samo tako svoje prave forme.

M: Izdali ste preko 200 video kazeta o unutarnjim borilačkim vještinama. Može li se učeći s kazeta naučiti pravi kung fu. Koja su vaša iskustva s ljudima koji uče na taj način?
E: Imam oko 10000 ljudi na svijetu koji uče pomoću mojih video kazeta. Vrlo su uspješni jer se trudim da jednostavno snimam svoje treninge i podučavam kao na treningu. to su vrlo sadržajne kazete na kojima učenici postavljaju pitanja, ispravljam ih pred kamerom i sl. Mnogi koji su danas poznati u svijetu borilačkih vještina uče s pomoću tih kazeta te povremene posjete zbog ispravaka. Većina njih treba vrlo malo ispravaka.

M: Za kraj imate li kakvu poruku za vježbače u Hrvatskoj.
E: Da Mario, imam dobrih učenika u Hrvatskoj i vrlo dobre veze sa tvojom zemljom.
Uvijek govorim svojim učenicima da budu otvoreni i da odu pogledati svakog učitelja kojeg mogu. Uvijek kažem da ako moj učenik nađe nekoga s kim se bolje osjeća trenirajući i učeći da mu se pridruži. Morate naći učitelja s kojim namjeravate provesti neko vrijeme vašeg života a svaki učenik obično nađe pravog učitelja (kojeg zaslužuje).

Intervju vodio Mario Krot

Zelo zanimivi arhivski posnetki taijija / Fascinating archive video of taiji

Verjetno najzgodnejši posnetek sloga Wu, narejen leta 1937 v Shanghaiju. Prikazuje Zhu Minyija, učenca Wu Jianquana. Viden je tudi zanimiv znanstveni pristop k vadbi lepljenja in žoge. Delček zgodovine.

Possibly the earliest Wu style Taijiquan video with Zhu Minyi, disciple of Wu Jianquan, recorded in 1937 in Shanghai. The video shows the Wu style set, tuishou and even Zhu’s ‘modern and scientific’ approach including his ‘stick’ and ‘ball’ system. A piece of history.

Original Yang style? / Izvorni yang stil? (Bob Boyd)

Kratek video zgodba Američana Boba Boyda, v kateri trdi, da je eden od dveh nosilcev originalne yang tradicije.

Gre za taiji, ki je precej drugačen od pekinške trilogije oziroma yang form (na primer 24), ki se jih uči večina vadbenikov po svetu.

Spodaj pa še vabilo na jesenski seminar v Beogradu, ki ga bo vodil Bob Boyd (interesenti, prosim javite se!).

http://youtu.be/300fvly1mXA

http://youtu.be/02ODqfpVXME

VABILO:

Dragi prijatelji, poštovane kolege, svi oni koje interesuje veština Tai Chi Chuana, čast mi je da najavim seminar Master Bob Bojda koji će se održati u periodu od 22. do 24. oktobra 2010. godine.

Master Bob Bojd predstavlja porodični stil Yang Tai Chi Chuana prenesenog od strane Yang Sau Chunga, sina Yang Chen Fua, čoveka čiji je modifikovani stil(Tiger Style) proslavio Tai Chi Chuan prvo u Kini a kasnije i u celom svetu.

Seminar će  u tri dana i 15h treninga obraditi  osnove i principe Snake Style TCC, radiće se I i II deo TRrdicionalne duge forme i korekcije forme, partnerske vežbe,push hands,principi samoodbrane.

Seminaru će kao asistenti prisustvovati i prijatelji Master Bob Bojda, Erni i Džon, Saša Krištofijak – prvi Master teacher Snake Style TCC iz Evrope kao i  10-tak instruktora Snake Style TCC iz inostranstva.

Seminar je otvorenog tipa, mogu prisustvovati svi zainteresovani – od početnika do instruktora, bez obzira na veštinu kojom se bave. Ovaj seminar je jedinstvena prilika da ugostimo i prisustvujemo treningu i  instrukcijama iz prve ruke jednog od naslednika porodičnih stilova Tai Chi Chuana.

Zamolio bih sve da podele ovu informaciju sa onima za koje smatraju da bi hteli da prisustvuju seminaru – linkove ka registracionom formularu i informacije o Master Bob Bojdumožete naći ovde: http://tinyurl.com/3xngv3s i http://tinyurl.com/3ahcqv5

Puno pozdrava, nadam se da ćemo se videti i na seminaru

Saša Balanesković

Snake Style Tai Chi Chuan škola Peng

Resavska 28, Beograd

mob: +381 (0)62 806 19 88

mail:    sasa@serbia.snake-style.com

skype: blnsququ

msn:   sasa.balaneskovic@pristop.co.yu

web:   www.serbia.snake-style.org

www.snake-style.blogspot.com


Razmerje Taiji in daoizem / On Relation Between Taiji and Daoism

Sometimes mispronounced “tai-ch’i,” Taiji quan 太極拳 (T’ai-chi ch’üan) literally means “Supreme Ultimate Boxing.” Here Taiji 太極 (lit., “great ridgepole”) refers to yin-yang interaction, so that the modern Taiji diagram is the Yin-yang symbol. This diagram is sometimes used as a symbol for Chinese martial arts by martial artists and sometimes as a symbol for Daoism by Daoists. These two are often conflated in the popular understanding of “Daoism.” Historically speaking, it is unclear when the modern Taiji diagram was created (cf. the Taiji tu 太極 圖 by Zhou Dunyi 周敦頤 [1017-1073]) and when Chinese Daoists began using it. In earlier Daoist history, the “yin-yang symbol” referred to the image of a tiger and dragon. The modern version may have been adopted by Daoists to compete with the symbolic representations of other religious traditions: the cross of Christianity, swastika of Buddhism, crescent moon of Islam, Star of David of Judaism, and so forth.

Taiji diagram Zhang Huang  章潢 (1527-1608)

Diagram of Taiji by Zhang Huang 章潢 (1527-1608)

Taiji refers to the cosmogonic moment when the Dao, through a spontaneous, impersonal process of self-unfolding, moved from Wuji 無極 (Primordial Undifferentiation) to Taiji, the manifest universe based on yin-yang interaction. Taiji quan is thus a form of martial arts based on yin and yang differentiation.

Taiji quan is part of the so-called Chinese internal martial arts (neijia 内家), with the other two forms being Bagua zhang 八卦掌 (Pa-kua chang; Eight Trigram Palm) and Xingyi quan 形意拳 (Hsing-i ch’üan; Form-Intent Boxing). Historically speaking, Taiji quan is a non-religious martial arts practice. The original form of Taiji quan, Chen 陳 style, was most likely created in the early seventeenth century, possibly by Chen Wangting 陳王廷 (1600-1680). The creation of Taiji quan occurred in the famous “Chen family village,” located in present-day Wen county of Henan province. It may have been formed as a nativist response to the perceived atrophy and weakness of Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasty court culture. In this way, it would have been part of a national-upbuilding movement to combat the occupation and suppression of the native population by foreign colonist powers.

There are five primary “family styles,” including Chen, Yang 楊 (founded by Yang Luchan 楊露禪 [1799-1872]), Wu 武-Hao 郝 (founded by Wu Yuxiang 武禹襄 [1813-1880]), Wu 吳 (founded by Wu Quanyou 吳全佑 [1834-1902] and Wu Jianquan 吳鑑泉 [1870-1942]), and Sun 孫 (founded by Sun Lutang [1861-1932]).

Yang Chengfu 楊澄甫 (1883-1936) in “Single Whip”

Yang Chengfu 楊澄甫 (1883-1936) in “Single Whip”

Yang style derived from Chen style. Both the Wu-Hao style and Wu style derived from Yang style. Sun style derived from Wu-Hao style. Each has its distinguishing characteristics in postural alignment and form. There are also some very recent forms, variously identified as “ancient” (gu 古), “Daoist” (daojia 道家), “primordial original” (hunyuan 混元), and so forth.

In origin and content, Taiji quan thus is not a Daoist practice. The earliest form originates as a martial art with the (non-Daoist) Chen family most likely in the early seventeenth century. Its emphasis on yin-yang is not Daoist, but rather part of what is best understood as “traditional Chinese cosmology.” Historically speaking, that cosmology was systematized by the Cosmologist School (yinyang jia 陰陽家) of the Warring States period (480-222 BCE) under the direction of Zou Yan 鄒衍 (Tsou Yen; 305-240 BCE). It was eventually incorporated into both Chinese medical traditions and classical Daoism.

The matter is complicated by the mythological account of the origins of Taiji quan with the pseudo-historical Zhang Sanfeng 張三丰 (ca. 14th c.?) and Wudang shan 武當山 (Mount Wudang; near Shiyan, Hubei). Taiji quan is, in turn, sometimes misidentified as Wudang quan 武當拳 (Wudang Boxing). Although yet to receive a thorough academic study, preliminary historical research suggests that this mythology developed in three stages, culminating in the conflation of Zhang Sanfeng, Wudang shan, and Taiji quan in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Under that fictitious history, Zhang Sanfeng, an immortal associated with Wudang, created the internal martial arts, which were eventually separated into the three neijia forms mentioned above. It is unclear when the specific forms of Wudang martial arts developed, but it may have occurred as late as the twentieth century. Legends surrounding the “Daoist origins” of Taiji quan may be compared to a parallel mythology concerning the association of certain Gongfu 功夫 (Kung Fu) systems with Shaolin si 少林寺 (Shaolin Monastery; Songshan 嵩山, Henan) and Bodhidharma (ca. 5th c. CE?).

In the modern world, there are a variety of Taiji quan forms that are identified as “Daoist.” The most well-known are those associated with Mount Wudang, which are referred to as “Wudang style.” In addition to being practiced and taught by Daoists at Mount Wudang, these forms, at least in name, have spread throughout the modern world. Practitioners, whether mainland Chinese Daoists or Western disciples, are most likely to perpetuate the mythological account of Taiji quan’s origins. Some self-identified Wudang centers include the Academy of Wudang Taoist Wushu Arts, US Wudang Association, Wudang dao, Wudang Taoist Kung Fu Academy, and Wudang Research Association. Many of these and similar groups cater to a Western clientele, with the primary motivation of making money. They are most likely to essentialize or reduce Daoist practice to martial arts training. They have gained cultural capital from popular cultural representations, such as in the film Wohu canglong 臥虎藏龍 (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; released in 2000).

One also finds the more recent “Taoist Tai Chi” created by Moy Lin-shin (Mei Lianxian 梅連羡; 1931-1998), a Hong Kong immigrant to Canada. Apart from yin-yang cosmology and its emphasis on “being soft,” and possibly Taiji quan’s mythological Daoist associations, it is difficult to determine what led Moy to categorize the practice as such. So-called “Taoist Tai Chi” is now widespread throughout the modern world as disseminated by the International Taoist Tai Chi Society (Guoji daojia taiji quan she 國際道家太極拳社).

In the context of contemporary American society, many Taiji quan teachers have been misidentified as Daoists and/or given a post-mortem Daoist pedigree.

So, what must be understood is that Taiji quan, in contrast to popular constructions, is not Daoist in origin or in content. Practicing this martial art does not make one a Daoist. At the same time, it cannot be denied that many mainland Chinese Daoists practice Taiji quan. This includes lineage-based Wudang forms, however recent their provenance may be. When practiced by Daoists, especially Quanzhen monastics, the martial applications of Taiji quan tend to deemphasized, while the meditative and health-preserving and life-extension dimensions are highlighted. A stronger emphasis is also placed on Daoist subtle anatomy and physiology, including qi circulation. In addition, some Daoists apply certain Daoist principles, especially those derived from classical Daoist texts, to transform Taiji quan into a “Daoist practice.”

Further Reading: “A Taoist Immortal of the Ming Dynasty: Chang San-feng”/Anna Seidel; Beyond the Closed Door/Arieh Lev Breslow; “Chronology of Daoist History”/Louis Komjathy; Daoist Identity/Livia Kohn and Harold Roth (eds.); Daoism in China/Wang Yi’e; “Ignorance, Legend, and Taijiquan”/Stanley Henning; Investigations into the Authenticity of the Chang San-feng ch’uan-chi/Wong Shiu Hon; Lost T’ai-chi Classics of the Late Ch’ing Dynasty/Douglas Wile; “Models of Daoist Practice and Attainment”/Louis Komjathy; Nei Jia Quan/Jess O’Brien; “Qigong in America”/Louis Komjathy; “Periodization of Daoist History”/Louis Komjathy; T’ai Chi’s Ancestors/Douglas Wile; “Taijiquan and Daoism: From Religion to Martial Art and Martial Art to Religion”/Douglas Wile; “The Dao of America”/Elijah Siegler; The Essence and Applications of Taijiquan/Louis Swaim; The Shaolin Monastery/Meir Shahar; “The Taoism of the Western Imagination and the Taoism of China”/Russell Kirkland;“Tracing the Contours of Daoism in North America”/Louis Komjathy.

See also American Daoism, Dao, Daoism (Historical), Daoism (Normative), Daoism (Popular Construction), Philosophical Daoism, Popular Western Taoism, and the entries on Daoist.

Članek je povzet po ameriškem Center for Daoist Studies. Povezava do njega, kjer so aktivne tudi nadaljne povezave omenjene v članku, je tukaj.

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