Nova branja

Jan Silberstorff je izdal še besednjak daodejinga, ki je njegova četrta knjiga povezana z daodejingom. Prvi dve sta prevoda daodejinga s komentarji, tretja pa povezuje daodejing in prakso taijiquana v obliki priročnika oziroma napotil za vadbo taijija na podlagi daodejinga.
Slednjo sem nabavili in je res vredna branja oziroma vadbe.
Vse omenjen knjige so v nemščini.

Več na spletni strani WCTAG.




Chen Zhenglei: On Substantial Improvements

On “Substantial Improvements”

Chen Zhenglei

How to Practice Taichi for Substantial Improvements




In recent years, on my tours in China and abroad, the question I was most asked by both Chinese and non-Chinese students is: How to practice taichi for substantial improvements? I will share my understanding in the next few points. I sincerely hope for comments and correction from other taichi teachers.

Like doing anything else, in order to understand how to practice taichi well, it is paramount to understand what taichi is. It is an important prerequisite to understand taichi from all aspects. Without a clear understanding, it is difficult to imagine that one can gain any substantial improvements.

Taichi was created by Chen Wangting, a ninth generation descendant of the Chen’s Family in Wen County Henan Province. Based on the family style boxing systems and by absorbing essence from other boxing systems, combining techniques of ancient energy systems such as Daoyin (internal energy manipulation) and Tuna (breathing exercises) as well as adopting theories from Yijing (The Book of Change) and the meridian doctrine of Chinese medicine, he created a boxing system that focuses on both the internal and the external training. The postures and moves are designed and structured according to biological principles as well as to the laws of nature. The main characteristics are continuous motions without hitches; interlaced fast and slow motions; incorporated hard and soft strengths; and relaxed, flexible, elastic and sometimes jerking moves. Taichi as a training system is supported by a set of mature and proven theories throughout the complete training processes. We can also look at taichi as a huge engineering system and the training to achieve substantial high level is definitely no easy task.

Based on teachings from the ancestors and what I’ve experience throughout years of training, I summarized the following training principles: Three Do’s and Three Don’ts.



  • Do train for theory verification, don’t train for raw power
  • Do train for fundamental roots, don’t train for external presentation
  • Do train for substantiated abilities, don’t train for application tricks.

Do Train for Theory Verification, Don’t Train for Raw Power

“Theory” consists of philosophical foundations and basic principles about taichi. Practicing taichi is the process applying the ultimate Dao – the principles how Yang develops fully to generate Yin and Yin develops fully to generate Yang in the process of taichi yin and yang exchanges. Taichi practice requires the practitioner to imply hardness in softness and softness in hardness as well as to ensure inter-supportiveness between hardness and softness. One also must understand the interchange between emptiness and solidness. Emptiness when developed fully will generate solidness; and solidness when developed fully will generate emptiness. Practicing with mental concentration using the mind to guide the qi and the qi to guide the body in total mind-qi-body unity, one should aim to achieve completeness in motion, wholeness in synchronization and high level internal and external coordination. Follow the requirements closely and aim to move naturally. Exercise great patience without haste. Training for raw power can result in great increase of power in isolated parts of the body. This type of power is often clumsy and stiff, lacking the necessary smoothness and flexibility. Taichi practitioners do not aim to acquire raw power.

Do Train for Fundamental Roots, Don’t Train for External Presentations.

“Fundamental Roots” refer to the original core (the original qi of the kidneys) and the base of the body. The kidneys house the original yin and yang energy. It is the prenatal source of energy and the root for postnatal energy. If the kidneys are fully sustained with qi, all other organs will have a better chance to be well sustained as well. Consequently, the liver, heart, spleen, lungs and kidneys all function the way they should. The practitioner will then have high spirit, ample physical strength, swift reactivity and better overall coordination. The abundance of internal qi is the first part of the fundamental roots. The second part of fundamental roots refers to the solid base of one’s postures. In taichi practice, on the basis of overall relaxation, accumulate the qi into Dantian and descend the qi further into Yongquan, so that the top portion is nimble, the middle section is agile and the base is solid like roots in soil. “External Presentations” refer to training mainly for power and toughness of isolated areas of the body. Taichi is an internal system with both the internal and external elements. The main focus should be on nurturing the internal energy – nourishing the roots and sustaining the source. “When the roots are nourished, branches and leaves flourish; when the source is sustained, the river runs long”.

Do Train for Substantiated Abilities, Don’t Train for Application Tricks.

Substantiated abilities are overall martial skills acquired as general mental and physical abilities; while application tricks are offensive and defensive application techniques of individual moves. If the practitioner only focuses on application technique to explain and understand taichi, he/she will never get to the true essence of taichi. High level taichi training must include certain phases: gaining routine proficiency, correcting postures and moves and softening stiffness. As a result, the whole body is synchronized, the internal and external are coordinated, the internal qi is filled fully and substantiated abilities are gained on the body. Taichi as a martial arts training system focuses mainly on training the self overall abilities. It promotes skills to react to the opponent’s attacks and selflessly following the opponent’s moves according to ever changing situations instead of limiting to applications of individual moves. When the internal qi is full, the whole body is like a well inflated balloon. It reacts to wherever is in contact. Wherever is in contact, it can be used to attack. As the teaching goes: “When accomplished, one responds automatically to attacks; no need to ponder as the body reacts naturally”.



  • Respect
  • Faith
  • Determination
  • Perseverance
  • Patience

Respect – cultivate high level ethics and morality. Respect your teachers. Renowned taichi master Chen Xin pointed out in his Illustrated Chen’s Taichi that: “Taichi cannot be learned without respect. Without respect, one would neglect his/her teachers and friends and as well as his/her own body. When the heart is not contained, how can one settle down to learn anything?”

Faith – faith consists of two aspects. Firstly, it is confidence, believing that one can succeed in taichi practice. Confidence is the source of self motivation. Secondly, it is trust, believing in taichi and the teacher; so that one will settle down whole heartedly with determination. Without trust, one will end up switching from system to system and teacher to teacher on a daily basis just like the old saying goes: “serving Qin at dawn and Chu by dusk”.

Determination – learning taichi requires determination. As Mencius said: the mind is the commander of internal energy. Only when one is determined, he/she will not be influenced by external interference. Only with determination, one can carry on to the final destination.

Perseverance – it means being persistent in taichi practice over a long period of time. It can be years or decades without slacking. Practicing by fits and starts or quitting with little achievements are bad habits to affect perseverance. Grand Master Chen Fake, 17th Chen’s family descendent, practiced his routines thirty times a day for decades without slacking. His taichi achievement was paramount and he was considered the best at the time. That’s how perseverance at work.

Patience – when all the above four mindsets are set, you’ll also need patience to achieve high level in taichi practice. On the one hand, taichi practice requires the practitioner to relax in postures, soften the body and slow down the moves. Without the correct understanding and mental preparation, it is impossible to relax and be patiently at ease. When one becomes impatient in taichi practice, it’s like driving at high speed heading the opposite direction. On the other hand, taichi practicing is a long process for both the mind and the body and should not be rushed. Try overcome irritation and boredom. Keep a peaceful mind. Follow the rules and requirements. Nurture the grand and majestic qi in the process of routine practice to acquire graduate subtle change of the mind and body. When the water comes, it will naturally form an aqueduct



  • A qualified teacher
  • Innate talent
  • Untiring diligence

The most important factor to achieve high level taichi is a qualified teacher. As our ancestors said: A teacher is someone who passes on principles, teaches skills and clears up confusions. Be it for academics or martial arts, especially for taichi practice, the function of a teacher is the predetermining condition. So far, there is no precedent of an achieved taichi practitioner who has done it without a teacher. However, one can practice taichi without a teacher for recreation purposes. In order to achieve high level in taichi, one must find a wise teacher who has a high moral and ethical standard, technically skillful, learned in theories and knows how to teach. A wise teacher can lead the students onto the right path so as to avoid detours and achieve twice the effect with half the work. Without a wise teacher, one might never reach the temple of taichi once he/she is heading the wrong direction.

Innate talent is the key factor for high level taichi achievements, especially for those who wish to be established. They must have the innate gift, great deductive reasoning and learning ability, quick mind as well as the ability to expand their understandings. Besides the guidance of a wise teacher, the subtlety of taichi must also be experience and pondered firsthand. It can only be taught intuitively, not because the teacher is holding back, but it is truly indescribable. It is only those who have the innate talent with great ability to comprehend who can truly understand the true essence of taichi and reach to higher level. For others, despite of a wise teacher and self diligence, will still have a hard time understanding the true essence and will only reach limited achievements. It is just as in academic studies, people have the same teachers and all try with similar efforts, but the result can be quite different. The difference is in the innate talent.

Diligence is the deciding factor for taichi practicing. To be successful, one must also work with untiring diligence besides the innate talent and teaching of a wise teacher. As it was stated in the ancestors’ teaching: “Only understanding and knowing the right methods is still not enough. It requires daily untiring diligence. Keep moving forward without stopping day in and day out. That’s how one can reach the destination eventually.” Don’t expect miracles and there is no shortcut. The only path to high level taichi is untiring diligence. Kungfu is acquired through practice and only untiring diligent practice will ensure substantiated kungfu on the body. Under the guidance of a wise teacher and by following the rules and requirements, one must exercise persistent effort to accumulate and nurture the internal kungfu in order to realize qualitative change through graduate quantitative change. Real comprehension is built on hard work. Enlightenment is triggered after a long process of accumulation. Instant enlightenment of the subtlety of taichi comes from persistent diligence. If one relies only on wits and cleverness and despises hard work, he/she will never understand the real essence of taichi and will always be wondering outside of temple of taichi.

Of course nothing is absolute. What I mentioned about is not cast in stone. Those factors have changing effects on each other. One strong element can improve other elements. For example, with correct understanding of the nature of taichi, it helps one to establish the right mindset. Some people may lack innate talent, but hard work can be supplementary to talent. Persistent untiring diligence goes a long way in the pursuit of true taichi essence. I hope this article can provide some clarity in the minds of some taichi enthusiasts regarding taichi practice.


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Posted on December 15, 2010 by admin

E-book: Chen Xin – Illustrated Canon of Chen Family

Ena temeljnih taiji knjig. Obvezno branje. Brez izgovorov, prosim.

E-knjiga: Chinese Healing exercises, the Tradition of Daoyin


Discussions with Chen Xiaowang / Pogovor s Chen Xiaowangom

Q: How do you use the dantian in applying force?
CXW: The dantian is the energy center of the body and requires coordination of the entire body. The force generated originates from the dantian and coordinates with the rest of the body, gaining force.

Q: What are the mechanics of applying dantian force?

CXW: Spiral force coordinated through the movement of the body. When the dantian turns, the body turns and pushes the hands. The dantian area is like the center of a circle.

Q: How are the back and legs coordinated with the dantian?
CXW: When the dantian begins moving, you connect the muscles of the legs and back to follow the dantian. Every part moves together, all connected. The hand does not move by itself, the dantian pushes the hand. It’s a three dimensional movement, using the whole body. The dantian, hip, knee, leg all coordinate, initiating in the spiraling through the body.

Q: Does the dantian have force?
CXW: A small amount. The small force pushes the rest of the body (muscle and bone).

Q: What is the connection between qi and the dantian?
CXW: Qi by itself is weak, soft. The dantian “communicates” to the
muscle and bone. The dantian is the storage of all the qi. The jingluo directs the qi through the body. When qi is generated, it is communicated (wired like a bomb) through the body. It is very important to understand the relationship of dantian to qi, qi and muscle, and muscle and bone. The main communication is between the dantian and muscle — this is the essence of Chen Taijiquan.

Q: There is a lot of emphasis on the dantian rotation in the Chen Style, correct?
CXW: Yes, in terms of connection to the whole body and the dantian leading the movement. Also, when empty, the qi goes from the dantian out to the hand it is yang. When it returns to the dantian, it is yin.

Q: What is the importance of yi?
CXW: The application of yi to the movement is important. There are three stages: early, middle, and advanced. Half the mind concentrates on the movement itself, the other half of the mind is empty or open. In the early stage you pay attention to the movement or the qi itself. At the advanced stage you don’t have to pay attention to it, all the channels are open and the qi is flowing naturally with concentrating on it. This is because the energy moves easily through the body. No matter what stage, it is important to keep one half of the concentration on the body’s movement and one half of the mind open.

Q: Are there acupuncture points stimulated by movements in Taiji?
CXW: Different postures require different coordination of the muscles, resulting in different emphasis. Qi is communicated through the channels, so there are different results with different movements.

Q: Are there any differences in breathing patterns between the Laojia Yi lu and Er lu forms?
CXW: Many people ask this. There are same and different principles associated with each form, but one should not try to control the breathing. Keep it natural. When doing fajin, it is natural to exhale. In the beginning you need to focus on correcting the movements, don’t try to force the breathing. As skill increases the body’s requirements for oxygen will adjust naturally. Be honest with the needs of your body. If you run or jump, the body will respond by adjusting your breathing naturally. You don’t need to think about it. Taiji is the same.

Q: Would you discuss qi?
CXW: Some things can only be felt and cannot be described. You should be feeling “hot water”, pouring through your arm and to your hand. Even at low levels, people can feel this. When the arm is circling the little finger moves, energy goes to the dantian. When the thumb moves, the qi goes from the dantian out to the hand.

Q: What is the difference between qi and jing?
CXW: The qi communicates, by itself is different. When communicated to the muscles, the qi becomes jing. Jing is the expression of qi,as it becomes explosive force. Whenever qi communicates explosive force to the muscles, it becomes jing.

Q: What is the difference between jing and shen?
CXW: Jing and shen are nearly the same. Shen is a higher level, jing is the first level of shen. Jing is the foundation of the building, shen is the top of the building. The relationship between yi and qi is the king, the qi is the army (bones and muscle). The yi is the king, muscle and bone the general. Yi effects qi.

Q: What are the most important principles in Chen Style Taijiquan?
CXW: Posture, position — standing post exercise is the first form. This gets the body ready for Taijiquan practice. Before you can drive a car, you have to adjust the mirrors, seats, buckle in, etc. This is similar. Think of the dantian as the center. The body must be in balance, the mind quiet and peaceful, energy flowing everywhere through the body. The key point is that the body is connected, qi is flowing and communicating with the rest of the body.
You have the one posture, two movement principle:The first principle the dantian moves side to side, turning, spiraling,and changing. Connection as above (standing post), maintained in moving, dantian moves the body responds. The second principle the dantian moves forward and backward. The movement corresponds to the dantian movement to another — transition from one movement to another — fundamental. Not spiraling. Once you understand the posture and the movement principles you understand all forms, applications, or any weapon. If you don’t understand these principles, you are like a tree without roots and you can’t grow.The two movement principles can combine into one because of the similarity.The chest/waist change the move, opening and closing.

Q: What are common mistakes people make learning Taijiquan?
CXW: One of the most common mistakes is that they don’t understand the two movement principles. They try to just copy their teacher’s movements, without understanding. The student must know what to do and what not to do, not just follow their teacher blindly. Each movement has a standard, and principles to be followed, so the teacher must understand this in order to teach the student, and the student must look for this and will/should be able to adjust other students and themselves. I want to see both the teacher and the student move forward together, toward the same goal of higher standard in Taijiquan.

Q: What is the importance of standing post?
CXW: It is the posture which increases the communication between the dantian and the rest of the body. One posture two movement principle. Standing post is the way to practice one posture.

Q: When should a student begin push hands?
CXW: Before push hands, you must understand the movement principles, coordination of the entire body. If you don’t, you end up with too much arm movement.

Q: Is central equilibrium developed through push hands?
CXW: This is done through the movement principles and the standing posture. Many times people fail in push hands because they lose the balance of the dantian. Maintain the beginning posture then when you move, maintain the two movement principles.

Q: How can people improve their push hands?
CXW: People should practice the entire Laojia Yi lu form. Practice all the postures and the form more often, think about application of each movement. You must practice often, keep the principles in mind during practice, until they become part of yourself.

Q: Is there a need to distinguish between yin and yang?
CXW: I use solid and empty, not yin and yang. It is difficult to explain, use double weighted, which means both sides have the same weight. In Taijiquan, you need to make one side lighter than the other, but that is too easy. If it were that easy, everyone would be a Taiji master. The real meaning is in the static posture. When the body isn’t moving, the energy can’t move, stagnation.

Q: What is the value of Qigong for Taiji practice?
CXW: Qigong principles are similar to Taiji. Same channels, dantian, body, etc. Taijiquan is a complete set of Qigong, you really need no other. Taijiquan is more systematic and sequential. I teach Qigong to those that desire to learn Qigong.

Q: What is the value of the Healing Sounds Qigong?
CXW: It is simple. There are sounds associated with movements of the body.
Just like a musical scale they all come from the mouth, but have different reactions on the body. Depending on your particular ailment or problem you create a specific sound.

Q: The push hands tournament tape from the Chen village looks pretty physical.
CXW: Some enter the tournament without proper practice. There are two aspects to push hands: 1. actively attack, 2. passively protect yourself. If you are being pushed you must protect yourself. You should learn and understand both aspects of the competition. The problem with the tournament is that many try to be number one (win), so both partners are actively attacking each other at the same time. This is the problem. Sometimes the competitors are not well matched either.

Q: How do you use peng energy in fajin?
CXW: The basic idea behind peng jing is energy flow, no stagnation. If energy is broken there is no peng jing. If there’s too much energy, also no peng jing. This is a big problem here in the US. Many people have the wrong idea about peng jing. The mind must be clear and peaceful. Peng jing cannot be forced. Allow energy to flow naturally is the only way.

Q: Is it necessary to have ground path in order to have peng jing?
CXW: No. It is like a car on a lift. The car’s engine can still run and the wheels will turn. Once you place the car on the ground the car will move. Peng jing is similar.

Q: How can neutralization skills be developed?
CXW: The posture must be relaxed, the mind relaxed, then minimal amount of movement is required to neutralize. This is peng jing. If the dantian is in communication with the body, it creates an “energy shield” around the body. If you lose communication with part of the body you lose peng jing. If doing properly, the arm will communicate how the rest of the body needs to respond. The soldier send signals to the general and the body responds as needed.

Q: How does open and close work when attacking?
CXW: When you are going to attack, the body collapses (closes) then opens, when attacking it opens in front and closes in back. Another way to say it is outside open and inside closed. When gathering the outside is closed and the inside is open.

Q: You created a 19 movement form?
CXW: The 19 form is from the request of many students from around the world. There are four sections in the form. It goes from right to left four times. The principles are based on the Chen Style Laojia (Old Frame), Xinjia (New Frame), and Xiaojia (Small Frame). The principles must be clear and then applied to all the 19 form postures. It is easy for beginners to learn. It was designed for the modern human, who has little time to practice a longer form.

Povzeto po

Pet vrlin in osem resnic Taijija

Esejčka sta delo neznanih ali neznanega avtorja ali avtorice. Waysun Liao, ki trenutno poučuje mešanje zraka, khm taijija, v ZDA, ju je prevedel iz kitajščine v angleščino in objavil v knjigi T’ai Chi Classics, Shambala, Boston & London, 1990. Besede zapisane v kurzivu so takšne tudi v knjigi.

Pet vrlin taijija

1. Učenje naj bo široko in raznoliko. Ne omejuj se. Načelo učenja naj bo kakor tvoje stojišče, ki se z lahkoto premika v različne smeri.

2. Preiskuj in postavljaj vprašanja. Vprašaj se, zakaj in kako taiji deluje. To načelo naj bo primerljivo s senzitivnostjo, ki je dovzetna za tisto, kar ostali prezrejo.

3. V razmišljanju bodi preudaren in skrben. Za pravilno razumevanje uporabi razum. To načelo naj bo primerljivo z razumevanjem moči.

4. Nedvoumno raziskuj. Jasno ločuj pojme in se nato odločaj za primerne postopke. To načelo naj bo primerljivo z nepretrganim gibanjem taijija.

5. Predano vadi. Načelo, primerljivo z nebesi in zemljo, z večnim.

Osem resnic taijija

1. Naj te ne skrbi forma. Naj te ne skrbijo načini, na katere se forma izraža. Najbolje je pozabiti lastno bivanje.

2. Celotno telo naj bo prosojno in prazno. Dopusti, da se notranje in zunanje zlijeta ter postaneta eno.

3. Nauči se ne meniti se za zunanje predmete. Sledi naravni poti. Dovoli, da te vodi misel, obnašaj se spontano in v sozvočju s trenutkom.

4. Sonce zahaja nad zahodno planino. Čer je nagnjena naprej kakor lebdeča v zraku. Poglej ocean v njegovi neizmernosti in nebo v njegovi brezmejnosti.

5. Tigrovo rjovenje je globoko in mogočno. Opičje vreščanje je visoko in predirljivo. Tako tudi ti kultiviraj svoj duh z negovanjem pozitivnega in negativnega.

6. Voda iz studenca je čista kakor kristal. Voda v luži je mirna in spokojna. Tvoje mišljenje naj bo kakor luža, tvoj duh kakor studenec.

7. Reka bobni, viharni ocean kipi. Pripravi svoj qi, da bo kakor tile naravni čudeži.

8. Zavzeto teži k popolnosti. Uredi življenje. Ko si umiril duh, lahko kultiviraš qi.

Trije klasiki Taijiquana – izbrani in komentirani fragmenti

K uspešni vadbi veščine spada tudi študij zapisane besede. Med njimi izstopajo trije teksti, ki danes veljajo za klasične. Napisali so jih Zhang Sanfeng (1279 – 1386), Wang Zongyue (okoli leta 1600) ter Wu Yuxiang (1812 in 1880).
Vsi trije so danes referenčni avtorji, morda ne izključno zaradi kvalitete zapisov, prej zaradi dejstva, da so se njihovi spisi ohranili. Obstaja še množica starejših zapisov o taijiquanu, ki pa niso avtorizirani, bolj ali manj ponavljajo tukaj povzete traktatov ali pa niso dovolj dobro datirani. Obstaja tudi množica odličnih besedil novejših datumov.
Iz dela treh klasikov smo izbrali nekatere odlomke, ki se nam zdijo lažji za razumevanje. Poudarek pri izbiri je bil na praktično uporabnih nasvetih, torej takšnih, ki so razumljivi na naši ravni obvladovanja veščine. Vsekakor bomo fragmente poskušali raztolmačiti skupaj in kolikor bo to le mogoče.
Kaj si lahko obetamo od branja klasikov? Na začetku precej neznank in idej, ki ne bodo našle pravega mesta. Pravo mesto jim lahko najde šele zavzeta vadba ob dobrem učitelju. Razumevanje se utrinja postopoma in, kar zagotavljajo tudi trije klasiki, zagotovo. Potrebna je vadba in študij.
V fragmentih, ki so pred nami, obstajajo določene razlike v izrazih kot notranja moč ali notranja energija. Te izhajajo iz prevajalskih ali zgodovinsko pogojenih razlik oziroma iz različnih tolmačenj avtorjev. Za naše potrebe ne bomo delali velikih razlik med posameznimi izrazi, vse bomo bolj ali manj združili v izrazu „notranje energije“, kar bo za naš namen zadostovalo.
Komentirani odlomki predstavljajo izbor, ki nujno ne predstavlja celote. Za boljše razumevanje je priporočljivo brati klasike v celoti.
In še nasvet. Nekatere fragmente lahko beremov v obe smeri, od spredaj nazaj in od zadaj naprej. Na primer, fragment Wu Yuxiana „če lahko um in notranjo energijo neovirano izmenjujemo, je veliko zadovoljstvo v tekočem in dinamičnem izvajanju“ lahko beremo tudi kot „samo če delamo dinamično in z velikim zadovoljstvom, potem bomo lahko neovirano izmenjevali um in notranjo energijo“.
Predlagam neortodoksno in igrivo branje klasikov. Saj zato klasiki so, a ne.

Pri komentarjih smo si pomagali s sledečimi avtorji:
Jou Tsung Hwaju, The Dao of Tajijiquan, Tai Chi Foundation, 2001
LIAO Waysun, Die Essenz des T’ai Chi, Knaur Verlag 1996
LIAO Waysun, T’ai Chi Classics, Shambala, Boston & London, 1990
LEE N. Scheele, T’ai Chi Ch’uan Classics.

1.Brž ko se pričneš gibati, mora celotno telo postati lahkotno (qing) in gibčno (ling). Vsak posamezen telesni del naj bo povezan z vsemi drugimi telesnimi deli.
(Zhang Sanfeng)

Z gibčnostjo in lahkotnostjo se ne smemo obremenjevati. Kajti, če smo prepričani, da nismo lahkotni in gibčni, potem takšni tudi nikoli ne bomo postali. Lahkotnost in gibčnost v taijiju nima veze z našo samopodobo o lastni zmožnosti lahkotnosti in gibčnosti. Razmišljanje o samopodobi med izvajanjem forme je zagotova pot k nosti. Kajti nekdo lahko izgleda zelo okorno in trdo, a bo imel ob izvajanju občutek, da mu vaja prav lepo teče.
Lahkotnost in gibčnost je stvar prepričanja in hkrati – lahko si že mislite – pravilne tehnike. Upoštevati je potrebno deset zlatih pravil pravilne drže in še štiri spodaj zapisane napotke.

Liao ob tem odstavku opozori na temeljnost skladnosti gibanja, v ilustracijo povedanega pa telo primerja z vesoljem. Njegova primerjava ni naključna, v vesolju je gibanje materije v soodvisnosti, sprememba ravnotežja nekega vesoljskega telesa povzroči spremembe vsaj v njegovi neposredni okolici.
Da bi telo doseglo lahkotnost in gibčnost mora biti
udobno ter
mentalno čuječe oz. osrediščeno.

Mogoče se zdi, da Liao prenapne razumevanje taijija do kozmogonskega merila, a v misli kitajskih Starih je veliko in malo, makro in mikro prežeto z istim, z Daom.

2.Izvajanje taijija ne sme biti površno ali neuravnovešeno. Prekinitve niso dopustne.
(Zhang Sanfeng)

Izvajanje forme mora biti kakor nežno navijanje svilene niti. Forma ima konec in začetek, prekinitve med izvajanjem forme bi notranjo energijo prelomile, površno izvajanje ali miselna neosredotočenost pa bi svileno nit pretrgale.
Idealna krivulja izvajanja je tista iz taiji diagrama. Ne konveksno, ne konkavno.
Pri izvajanju ne poudarjamo fizične moči, temveč vitalnost in prefinjenost svilene niti.

3.Pri izvajanju taijija velja: preveč (delati) je enako kot premalo (delati). Ko je telo v gibanju, naj sledi loku (ki gibe razteza).
(Wang Zongyue)

Odlomek nas opozori na pomembnost teorije yinyang in na pravilno izvajanje forme kot način razvijanja harmonije telesa. Razumevanje prave mere ali umerjenost je pogoj za razumevanje taiji mehanike gibanja, kajti samo pravilna drža omogoča napredovanje. Pravilo zlate sredine in srednje poti.

4.Med izvajanjem taijija moraš sprostiti vrat, glavo pa držati tako, kot da je obešena na vrvici. Notranjo moč spusti v spodnji del trebuha. Telesna drža naj bo pokončna in usrediščena. Ne nagibaj ali naslanjaj se v nobeno smer. Gibi naj nenehno prehajajo med polnim in praznim. Če nasprotnik pritisne na tvojo levo stran, potem jo moraš izprazniti. Če se tvoja desna stran zdi težka, potem jo moraš pripraviti k izginotju.
(Wang Zhongyue)

Liao v komentarju zapiše, da tehnika obešanja temenske točke in sproščanja vratu omogoča hitrejše razvijanje spiritualne moči (shen). Lee ključni del odlomka prevede:

brez napora jin doseže teme

Yang Chengfu je bolj še določen, temensko točko imenuje z daostičnim izrazom ni wan (baihui). Poudarja, da mora temenska točka ostati prazna, glava pa držana pokonci. Duh in jin naj se dvigneta, ne pa tudi qi. Nagibanje telesa ali neusrediščena drža zaustavljata pretok qija, zato samo pravilna telesna drža omogoča neovirano razpošiljanje in vračanje qija iz dantiana po udih in trupu, ter iz udov nazaj v dantian.
Razbremenitev in izginotje leve ter desne strani se nanaša na borilne tehnike umikanja nasprotnikovi sili, ki pa jih Yang Chengfu v komentarju opremi z opazko, ki ni namenjena samo borilnim uporabi. Izginjanje in pojavljanje je zanj “teorija o nenadnem obstajanju in neobstajanju” ter načelo, ki “udejanja vzpenjanje in upadanje Taijija”.
Leva stran v taijiju predstavlja moč duha, desna pa fizično moč.
Pomen temenske točke in njene drže je poudarjen in opisan tudi v desetih pravilih drže pri izvajanju tajija.

5.Med mirovanjem bodi kakor gora. V gibanju bodi kakor velika reka.
(Wu Yuxiang)

Kakor gora pomeni biti nepremakljiv, noge so stabilne kot gora. Gibanje je globoko in tiho, kakor velika reka.
Oboje lahko vidimo tudi kot dva nasprotujoča si pola v nenehni izmenjavi. Yinyang.
Gore so sicer simbol božanskega, reke pa spremenljivosti.
Tudi udejanjanje daoističnega kozmološkega načela o razliki med bivanjem in nebivanjem.

6.Notranja moč je primerljiva s sukanjem kolesa, kjer se pas vrti kakor osišče kolesa.
(Wu Yuxiang)

Odlomek opozarja na povezavo med gibanjem in notranjimi energijami. Pri prenašanju in usmerjanju energij iz spodnega v gornji del telesa, ima pas in njegovo gibanje odločilni položaj. V predelu pasu si zamislimo vodoravno položeno kolo z osjo v sredini trupa in trup nasajen na golo, kar omogoča neovirano gibanje v vse smeri. Tako se, na primer, z nogami pomikamo naprej ali nazaj, medtem ko s trupom izvajamo gibe levo ali desno. Tako uspešno pokrivamo vseh osem smeri (pakua).
Telo lahko primerjamo tudi z lončarskim tnalom ali vijakom.
V predelu pasu skoraj horizontalno poteka tudi pomemben meridijan.

7.Notranja energija ali qi korenini v stopalih, se prenaša po nogah in usmerja iz pasu, da bi se končno iz hrbta pomaknila v roke in nato do prstnih konic.
(Zhang Sanfeng)

Samo pravilno izvajanje forme omogoča neoviran pretok notranjih energij. Seveda energija ne teče (samo) v smeri, kot je opisana v tem fragmentu.
Odlomek lahko beremo kot napotek za učenje novih slik. Opazovati pričnemo pri temeljih, torej nogah, nadaljujemo s trupom in končamo pri rokah. Roke so samo odraz pravilne postavitve temeljev oziroma nog. Najpomebnjši je položaj nog, ki nam omogoča vse ostale. Spomnimo se lončarskega tnala.

8.Prenos moči prihaja iz hrbtenice. Sprememba položaja sledi gibanju tvojega trupa.
(Wu Yuxiang)

Moč oziroma qi se iz hrbetnice preko lopatic prenaša v roke in prste, kar se imenuje odpiranje, obratno je zapiranje. Moč ni v rokah, temveč v hrbtenici in pasu.
Sprememba položaja sledi trupu pomeni, da noge sledijo trupu. V nasprotju s prejšnjim fragmentom, kjer se pot energije prične pri stopalih in konča pri prstih?
Yuxiang prav tako govori o prenosu enegije, ne o njenem ustvarjanju.
Središče telesa in njegov najvitalnejši del se pri taijiju nahaja v spodnjem delu trebuha, kjer se ustvarja in pretvarja qi oziroma energija. Od tu se energija razpošilja po vseh udih in organih.
Med gibanjem je potrebno biti osredotočen na spodnji del trebuha, ki se prične gibati prvi. Noge sledijo.

9.Ni dovolj, če jasno ločuješ med pozitivnim in negativnim, prav tako moraš jasno lokalizirati polno in prazno. Ko se telo sklene v enoto, kjer so vsi deli povezani, postane ogromno združenje pozitivnih in negativnih energetskih enot. Vsaka pozitivna in vsaka negativna energetska enota mora biti povezana z vsemi ostalimi enotami, v svoji verižnosti pa ne smejo dopuščati prekinitev.
(Zhang Sanfeng)

Različni avtorji komentarjev tukaj poudarjajo ločevanje med dvema poloma, ki ju v komentarjih označijo z yin in yang. Če je, na primer, obtežena noga yang, je neobtežena yin. Pri premikanju naprej je prednja stran trupa yang, hrbet pa yin. Nasprotno pa je pri premikanju nazaj hrbtna stran yang, prednja stran telesa pa yin. Pri premikanju roke z dlanjo obrnjeno proti telesu, je zunanja stran podlakti yang, notranjost dlani pa yin. V razmerju do roke pa je celotna dlan yang, preostanek roke pa yin. In tako skoraj v neskončnost. Tako je telo vsled gibanja povezano z neštetimi in spreminjajočimi se razmerji med paroma nasprotij.
Opozorimo na razlikovanje med paroma negativno – pozitivno ter polno – prazno. Čeprav oba avtorja fragment komentirata samo z delitvijo na yin in yang pola, pa dodajmo, da je prvi par primer kvantitativnega razlikovanja, drugi par pa primer kvalitativnega razlikovanja.

10.Če lahko um in notranjo energijo neovirano izmenjujemo, je veliko zadovoljstvo v tekočem in dinamičnem izvajanju. To se imenuje izmenjava negativnega in pozitivnega.
(Wu Yuxiang)

Tokratna aplikacija se nanaša na razmerje med umom, notranjo energijo in gibanjem. Če privzamemo um kot začetno točko z vrednostjo yang, potem je notranja energija, ki jo um vzpodbudi vrednosti yin. Če je potem notranja energija tista, ki vodi gibanje, potem iz vhodne vrednosti yin zlagoma privzame značaj yang, gibanje kot posledica njenega pretoka, pa pripade yin polu. In če je gibanje tisto, ki v naslednji fazi deluje na stanje uma, potem samo privzame značaj yang pola, umu pa pripadejo značilnosti yin pola. Opisane premenske antagonizme lahko nazorno prikažemo s sinusoidnim diagramom:

11.Tvoj um naj bo usrediščen kakor krotka muca, mirna, a pripravljena nemudoma skočiti za okoli smukajočo se miško.
(Wu Yuxiang)

Komentar verjetno ni potreben.

12.Notranja moč naj bo v stanju ravnotežja med sproščenostjo in še-ne-sproščenostjo, med razteznjenostjo in še-ne-razteznjenostjo. Četudi bi bila notranja moč prekinjena, naj um ostane v nadaljevanju dogajanja.
(Wu Yuxiang)

O snovi iz prvega stavka smo tukaj že govorili.

13.Uporabi um za urjenje notranje energije. Pusti notranjo energijo, naj se potopi in oprime tvojega telesa. Nazadnje se lahko notranja energija zgosti v kostni mozeg.
(Wu Yuxiang)

Nek komentato fragmenta prevaja z “xin mobilizira qi”, xin pa prevede kot um-in-srce. Povsem kitajski koncept.
Po določenem času, ko qi lahko brez ovir potuje po teleu, ga lahko pričnemo voditi z umom oziroma mislijo.

14.Um in duh morata nadzorovati tvoje celotno telo. Ne poskušaj telesa obvladovati izključno z dihanjem, kajti to bo gibanje upočasnilo in naredilo okorno. Obvladovanje telesa s pomočjo dihanja ne prinaša notranje moči. Samo če se izogneš takšni zmoti, lahko razviješ najčistejšo in najčvrstejšo notranjo moč.
(Wu Yuxiang)

Med izvajanjem forme se je potrebno osredotočati na um in duh, ne na dihanje. Razmišljanje o dihanju bo zagotovo pripeljalo do zadihanosti ali neusklajenosti med gibanjem in dihanjem. Ko bodo gibi udomačeni, bo dih sam našel pravilno pot. Takrat pričetek dela z sistemi dihanja – mali nebeški krog in tako naoprej. Daopisti dihanje brez dihanja, delovanje brez delovanja.

Tiho pomni in temeljito razglabljaj. Malo po malo in dosegel boš stopnjo, na kateri bo telo samo po sebi sledilo umu.
(Yang Chengfu)

Sicer na spada med klasike, a bo pravšenj za zaključek traktatka.

He: zapiranje. Obratno kai.
Hou tian qi: Poporodni qi. Eden od dveh glavnih tipov qija, zelo pomemen pri qigongu in taijiju. Glej tudi xian tian qi.
Jin: notranja moč
Jing: esenca, glej qi in shen.
Kai: odpiranje. Obratno he.
Li: moč, načelo.
Pakua: osem smeri.
Qi: notranja energija, angl. ch’i, jap. ki, sanskrt prana.
Ren qi, človeški qi, glej tudi san cai.
San bao: trije zakladi ali jing, qi in shen.
San cai: Tri sile ali nebeški qi (tian qi), zemeljski qi (di qi) in človeški qi (ren).
Shen: duh (vitalnosti).
Shi: polno. Obratno glej xu.
Sung: sproščenost.
Tian qi: nebeški qi, glej tudi San cai.
Wei qi: Fini qi. V kitajski medicini ena od dveh kategorij qija. Glej tudi ying qi.
Xian tian qi: Predporodni qi. Eden od dveh glavnih tipov qija, zelo pomemben pri qigongu in taijiju. Glej hou tian qi.
Xin: srce, um.
Xu: prazno. Obratno glej shi.

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